Psychopharmacological management of femininity. Antipsychotics for insubordinate women
PDF (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))


psiquiatría, Clorpromazina, género, industria farmacéutica, publicidad. psychiatry, chlorpromazine, gender, pharmaceutical industry, advertising.

How to Cite

Caponi, S. (2022). Psychopharmacological management of femininity. Antipsychotics for insubordinate women. Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History, 3(6), e21094.


The article adopts a historical and critical perspective concerning the hegemonic model of mental health focused on the need to pharmacologically restore a neurochemical imbalance. In the field of psychiatry, there seems to be a broad agreement to defend the thesis according to which, between 1952 and 1954, with the discovery of the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, a process of radical transformation of psychiatric knowledge would begin. In 1954, the North American Laboratory Smith, Kline and French (today Glaxo Smith) bought the patent to market that drug in the United States. We analyze the advertising campaign addressed to women. The advertising of this powerful psychiatric drug, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, allows us to understand the gender perspective existing in the pharmaceutical industry and the role of neuroleptics in the management of femininity.
PDF (Español (España))
EPUB (Español (España))


Abbott Laboratórios do Brasil Ltda. (s.f.). Bula: AKINETON®–Cloridrato de biperideno. São Paulo–SP.

Bartky, S. (1990). Foucault, feminity and the modernization of patriarcal power. En S. Bartky (Ed.), Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression (pp. 63-82). Routledge.

Bombarda, M. (1896). Liçoes sobre a Epilepsia. Livraria de Antonio Pereira.

Bonkers Institute. (2014). Online gallery of modern and vintage psychiatric drug advertising.

Caponi, S. (2019). Uma sala tranquila: antipsicóticos para uma biopolitica da indiferença. LiberArs.

Deniker, P. (1960). Experimental neurological syndromes and the new drug therapies in psychiatry. Compr. Psychiatry, 1(2), 92-102.

Foucault, M. (2003). Le pouvoir psiquiatrique. Gallimard.

Foucault, M. (2004). Securité, territoire, population. Gallimard.

Healy, D. (2000). Pioneers in psychopharmacology II. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 3(4), 351–354.

Krafft-Ebing, R. (1894). Psychopathia Sexualis. The F.A. Davis Publishers-F.J. Rebman.

Missa, J. N. (2006). Naissance de la psychiatrie biologique: Histoire des traitements des maladies mentales au XXe siècle. PUF.

Moebius, P. J. (1982). La inferioridad mental de la mujer. Bruguera.

Moncrieff, J. (2008). The Myth of the Chemical Cure. Palgrave/MacMillan.

Moncrieff, J. (2013a). Hablando claro: una introducción a los fármacos psiquiátricos. Herder.

Moncrieff, J. (2013b). Models of drug action.

Oksala, J. (2019). O sujeito neoliberal do feminismo. Neoliberalismo, Feminismos e Contracondutas. Perspectivas Foucaultianas. Intermeios.

Organización Mundial de la Salud. (2021). Orientaciones sobre servicios de salud mental comunitaria.

Overholser, W. (1956). Has Chlorpromazine inaugurated a new era in mental hospitals? Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology, 17(2), 197–201.

Swazey, J. (1974). Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry. A Study of Therapeutic Innovation. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Whitaker, R. (2010). Mad in America. Bad Science, bad medicine, and the enduring mistreatment of the mentally ill. Basic Books-Perseus Books Group.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 Sandra Caponi


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...