Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History <p><strong>Resistances (ISSN 2737-6222)</strong>, is a refereed academic journal that publishes two issues per year (January-July and August-December) in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. It is edited by the Centro de Investigaciones en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de América Latina (CICSHAL-RELIGACIÓN), a center associated to CLACSO. The journal is inspired by the resistance experience of Dolores Cacuango, who promoted processes of struggle and political participation that allowed great advances in the achievement of the rights of peasants and indigenous people and oppressed sectors of the region. This constitutes a reference to our intention to make visible and revalue a philosophical praxis committed to the historical and social reality.</p> CICSHAL-RELIGACIÓN. CENTRO DE INVESTIGACIONES EN CIENCIAS SOCIALES Y HUMANIDADES DESDE AMÉRICA LATINA en-US Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2737-6222 Hegel and industrial capitalism: poverty and the plebs as remnants of the modern state <p style="font-weight: 400;">This article has as purpose the approach about the most important "fissure" of the "Principles of the philosophy of law": the huge increase of poverty within the modern industrial societies. From his gray philosophy, deprived of solutions, Hegel contributes a political philosophy whose logical structure and coherence doesn’t escape respect the negativity’s beat that all historical events contains, describing the reality contradictions <em>just as it is</em>. In this sense, poverty will no longer be seen as mere collateral damage of abundance or as an external intrusion inside civil society and confronted with the State, but as the foundation of the social order. The study of Hegel will lead to getting closer about the reality "fissures" and, especially, the limits of modern rationality, whose abstraction level and remoteness from the reality seems to generate an irrepressible accumulation of residues, impossible to assume by the herself.</p> Andrés Pérez Copyright (c) 2022 Andrés Pérez 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 3 5 e21057 e21057 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.57 A matter of correct distancing: Benjamin and Heidegger on the artwork <p style="font-weight: 400;">In this article I explore the relationship between Walter Benjamin´s and Martin Heidegger´s ideas regarding the work of art and the importance of the spatial dimension in the aesthetic experience. To do this, I offer a comparative reading of both author’s essays on the artwork, as both can be interpreted as a critique of the modern conception of the relationship between man and the world in terms of a subject and an object, which hides the transformative potentiality of experience. I also offer an interpretation of Heidegger's “The Age of the World Picture” in the light of Benjaminian ideas on aestheticization and the crisis of experience, pointing out some proximities and oppositions between the ideas of both thinkers with the aim of make a contribution to the understanding of both corpus. Heidegger was, indeed, a lucid critic of the forms of objectivation of the world that understand it, from the theory but not without important consequences for praxis, as a mere object of observation, control and measurement. Even so, and as can be expected, beyond the coincidences, the crucial difference between our philosophers will be, in a very deep sense, political.</p> Tatiana Staroselsky Copyright (c) 2022 Tatiana Staroselsky 2022-04-05 2022-04-05 3 5 e21067 e21067 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.67 Epistemic and participatory justice in health access for women from Mapuce communities. Childbirth health care <p style="font-weight: 400;">This article proposes a geosituated analysis of health care for women from indigenous Mapuce communities in Argentina, from the framework of epistemic and participatory justice. At first, the conceptions that these communities have regarding health-disease and their ways of living the moment of childbirth are characterized. In a second moment, the specific violence to which Mapuce women are subjected in the care of childbirth by the hegemonic medical model becomes evident when they do not contemplate their ancestral knowledge and their ways of giving birth. Finally, reflections are offered regarding the need to rethink the public health system with the clear objective of promoting a human rights approach, centered on intercultural and inter-systemic health care. In the conclusion, it was considered highly relevant to start from the narration of the struggles and resistances from the voice of these women, to attend to a more situated approach with respect to the stories of the experiential experiences that the Mapuce women described about the characteristics of care. healthcare they receive. In this aspect, various situations of obstetric and cultural violence could be verified from the very actions of the hegemonic health system. Indeed, it is argued that it is imperative to build bridges that expand epistemic horizontalities and the democratization of democracy.</p> Cintia Daniela Rodríguez Garat Copyright (c) 2022 Cintia Daniela Rodríguez 2022-04-06 2022-04-06 3 5 e21060 e21060 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.60 Presentation of the Dossier: Pluriversality of the critique of modern Western thought. Themes, currents, authorships, works <p>Presentation of the Dossier: Pluriversality of the critique of modern Western thought. Themes, currents, authorships, works</p> <div id="gtx-trans" style="position: absolute; left: -78px; top: 2.5px;"> <div class="gtx-trans-icon">&nbsp;</div> </div> José Guadalupe Gandarilla S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 3 5 e21091 e21091 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.91 Strain between “colonial reason” and previously established knowledge <p>A definition of “Colonial Reason” is introduced in this article. This definition is a masked discourse in relation to the historical facts of the colonial domain that affected, and still affects, our original peoples’ situation, putting us as subjects under an inferior cultural condition. It disengages the fundamentals of “cultural superiority” given from a colonial perspective which imposes a subordination condition for our original cultures. Therefore, this situation is confronted by the knowledge allocated that represents the original communicative systems. It exposes the conditions of our previous knowledge and wit: The communicative systems, registers in tocapu, quipu and yupay (for counting), hampiy (for healing) and Hanan pacha (for astronomy), recorded during the first decades of the colonial administration. It proposes to locate this original knowledge as a legitimate discourse for the analysis of the processes that affected, and continue to affect, our original cultures and peoples.</p> Víctor Mazzi Huaycucho Copyright (c) 2022 Víctor Mazzi Huaycucho 2022-06-08 2022-06-08 3 5 e21076 e21076 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.76 Some theses on decolonizing history <p style="font-weight: 400;">This essay proposes a pathway to decolonize history. Accomplishing this task requires us to conceive of the past as a site of conflict between social forces and to reject the existence of a single history. Decolonization is an intellectual intervention that opposes those interpretations of history that reproduce modern, capitalist, colonial, and patriarchal domination. Such interpretations use the concept of “abyssal line” to socially and racially separate human beings, and the concept of “linear time” to sustain a unidirectional, accumulative, irreversible, and progressive temporality. Decolonizing history means denouncing the existence of this dominant from of conceiving of the past and affirming the construction of a post-abyssal and non-linear history that takes into account the agency of the oppressed in shaping social processes. The “history of absences” and the “history of emergencies” are tools for decolonizing history since they demonstrate that the past is not closed and show how the oppressed confront the forms of domination used by the oppressors to characterize the vanquished: “epistemicide, “kairocide”, and “timécide”.</p> Boaventura de Sousa Santos Copyright (c) 2022 Boaventura de Sousa Santos 2022-05-30 2022-05-30 3 5 e21090 e21090 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.90 Encountering other worlds (notes for a pluriversal ethics) <p>In response to Louis-Auguste Blanqui’s incitement to seek other worlds, this article addresses the possibilities of a heteronomous ethics in a pluriversal sense. On the basis of such an ethic, certain utopian potentialities of translation as cosmopolitics are raised.</p> Silvana Rabinovich Copyright (c) 2022 Silvana Rabinovich 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 3 5 e21079 e21079 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.79 The Stage of Modernity <p>The narratives that have asserted the connection between modernity and the Occident as well as those that have tried to decentralize the center of the modern coincide in one primordial aspect: they see modernity as a product of the West. Therefore, what is questioned is considering if it is possible to find a way to theorize the matter of modernity and place it in a global context and at the same time to allow this context to complicate instead of simply to revert the narrative logic of modernity. In this sense, one of the issues that the author suggests to review is the manner the interactions between the Occident and the non-Occident are conducted to be able to take on the staging that defines the modern by the constitutive difference of its space and its representation.</p> Timothy P. Mitchell Copyright (c) 2022 Timothy P. Mitchell 2022-06-07 2022-06-07 3 5 e21087 e21087 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.87 Written logic, oral logic: cultural inter-location <p>“Modernity” performed processes of barbarism and inculturation to regions outside Europe, in secular relations between Western and non-Western societies. The potential of press and literacy produced a “textual attitude” in Europe, used in the West's invention of the Orient. Bearer of western hegemony, literate writing, between racism and exclusions annulled the otherness of other peoples, with strength between black and native peoples. Traditional peoples of Africa and the Americas, socialized in oral traditions, facing the acceleration of Western modernity, accumulate cultural tensions, fierce in the expansion of markets, extraction of minerals and unbalances in nature, where the environment lived long before the expansion of the West. How do diaspora peoples in the Northeast and Yanomami peoples in Northern Brazil live in the cultural in-between?</p> Maria Antonieta Antonacci Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Antonieta Antonacci 2022-06-04 2022-06-04 3 5 e21082 e21082 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.82 Mythology as oral transmission in the Yanomami's childhood education for their social integration <p>How does the non-indigenous adult perceive the Yanomami child? What we propose in this article is to bring elements to the debate on the theme of indigenous children, from a comparative analysis of Yanomami children through photographs taken by religious at the Catrimani Mission in 1993, where they indicated their traditional environment of family education and their various interactions. This iconographic portrayal is recorded through a sample of photographs of Yanomami children, compared to Davi Kopenawa's autobiographical description, of his childhood memories, in the late 1950s and early 1960s, which allowed us to understand the environmental context in which these children are inserted, while observing their interactions with adults and the environment, with an emphasis on symbolic, cultural and emotional aspects. It is about triangular methodology, documentary, photographic and bibliographic. As results indicated, it was observed that the contrast of two narratives based on different supports: the visual, photographic narrative, and the written, literary narrative (autobiographical documentary), demonstrates the persistence, through the contact history of the Yanomami, of oral mythology in the cultural identity of these people at the end of the 20th century.</p> João Paulino Da Silva Neto Pamela Alves Gil Copyright (c) 2022 João Paulino Da Silva Neto, Pamela Alves Gil 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 3 5 e21083 e21083 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.83 The Umbrella and the Typewriter: Black Arts as Europe’s Phármakon <p>When Édouard Manet painted the work Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe between 1862 and 1863 and exhibited it at the Salon des Refuseds ??in 1863, the sensuality of the naked woman sitting next to two men, dressed in the fashion of the time, caused a great scandal in French society. from that time. However, the photograph of two Zulu women, published in the British magazine Photographic News in 1879, had an effect completely contrary to Manet's famous painting. The present text will investigate the fascination exerted by the exotic, dark and mythical in the construction of the sensibility of thinkers and artists of the avant-garde and in the representation of non-Western peoples, as well as the construction of notions such as “primitive art” or even “African art” that operated within the modernist discourse on art, showing that modernism and colonialism are brutally and surprisingly connected.</p> Rafael Gonzaga de Macedo Copyright (c) 2022 Rafael Gonzaga de Macedo 2022-05-16 2022-05-16 3 5 e21086 e21086 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.86 Liquid Existences <p style="font-weight: 400;">Based on portraits of indigenous women dating from the first half of the 20th century, preserved in the collection of Image and Sound Museum of Manaus (MISAM), this study, through the poetics of the artist's book <em>Existências Líquidas</em>, presents a subjective view of representations of native peoples. The work started from the desire to intertwine affection with the images of the portrayed memorizing everyday habits of my Afro-indigenous family, such as the tea recipes, which I learned from my maternal grandmother Norma Teixeira. To the photos of the portrayed, I add fragments of vegetables that I collected during walks in Manaus and associated them with the resistance of the bush in the urban environment as an act of resistance of the indigenous population in the face of racist policies, which disregard the ways of life of these peoples.</p> Khetllen Da Costa Tavares Copyright (c) 2022 Khetllen Da Costa Tavares 2022-05-02 2022-05-02 3 5 e21077 e21077 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.77 "Infinite Columns" by Daniel Lima and the Poetics of Between Places <p>Based on the photographic work “Infinite columns”, by the artist and activist Daniel Lima, this article perceives Homi Bhabha's concept of &nbsp;'between-place' in dialogue with Stuart Hall's theories of contemporary culture, in contrast to the dissonance of cultural encounters, and artistic scenario since no less than the week of the 22nd and its celebration of Brazilian art restricted to Europeanized modernists, but which persists to the present day, whether in the absence of other aesthetic manifestations in contemporary art curricula, or in line with the restrictions of COVID19, which unites academics in virtual networks, electronic columns, but interrupts school dialogues with those dispossessed of those devices and virtual networks.</p> Celia Maria Antonacci Copyright (c) 2022 Celia Maria Antonacci 2022-06-03 2022-06-03 3 5 e21081 e21081 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.81 From Coronacrisis to Ebony Spring: Cultivating and Creolizing Ubuntu in the Dialectic of Eros and Thanatos <p style="font-weight: 400;">The context of the pandemic of Covid-19 has demanded a deep reflection about the present time in which we live. One of the proposals is to assume this moment as a “Coronacrisis” understood as a category to signify how the pandemic aggravates the multifaceted crisis of the Western capitalist civilization in its neoliberal era. This proposal has unmasked the dialectic of death and life that is positioned in the center of the fight against negritude. The consequences of the pandemic were quickly reflected upon from the codes of whiteness. In this article, we suggest approaching this phenomenon from the zone of the nonbeing with African heritage from our continent. Being situated in this moment of the enunciation not only opens the opportunity for a better understanding of what we have lived in these times until now but also allows us to look for the ways out of this crisis.</p> Agustín Lao Montes Copyright (c) 2022 Agustín Lao Montes 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 3 5 e21089 e21089 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.89 An experiment in building "intersubjectivity" between two radically different environments in the city of São Paulo, the favela and the university <p>Our initial proposal was to bring together two diverse cultural environments, two different groups of young people: the young undergraduate students of the Journalism and Multimeios at PUC-SP and the young people of the Nofotofake collective from the favela of Heliópolis (subjects and subjects of the research of doctoral student Roberta Dabdab), to photograph together their respective environments as a contribution to the construction of an “intersubjective model” of social design, capable of inducing the creation of intersubjectivities among them. We were living the pandemic at its peak (2021) and our hypothesis was not confirmed at first, but it flourished and confirmed the importance of a model that makes it possible to design new social, cultural and therefore environmental configurations, a kind of “biodesign”. The methodology is based on Harry Pross's Media Theory and his considerations about “primary media” and will follow paths pointed out by Vilém Flusser (intersubjectivity) and Baitello (iconophagy).</p> Roberta Dabdab Norval Baitello Junior Copyright (c) 2022 Roberta Dabdab, Norvala Baitello Junior 2022-06-12 2022-06-12 3 5 e21080 e21080 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.80 Theatrical aesthetics of liberation. The claim for life on the Argentine scene <p>We propose a theatrical Aesthetics of liberation understood as one that articulates imaginary, visual, or textual bridges between the opening to the context-world (<em>aisthesis</em>) and its impact on subjectivity (affective atmosphere) and that gives rise to a scenic production (<em>poiesis</em>) favorable to the conservation and improvement of life that raises opposition or rejection of those contexts that are not conducive to it. We will observe the productions of the theatrical scene in three moments of the recent Argentine past to visualize both the resistance and denunciation of the decrease or disappearance of rights and the rejection of the necessary control of bodies and actions to impose the liberal/neoliberal model. We will look into scenes produced during the Argentine Revolution (1966-73), stagings of the end of the 20th century responding to the exacerbation of neoliberalism, and finally, those produced during the last neoliberal restoration (Macri, 2015-2019).</p> Lola Proaño Gómez Copyright (c) 2022 Lola Proaño Gómez 2022-06-05 2022-06-05 3 5 e21085 e21085 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.85 Technological capitalism, labor and the global South <p>This article seeks to analyze labor reconfigurations in the framework of technological capitalism and the conformation of the cognitariat under the deployment of data colonialism, which reinforces the geopolitical differences between the global North and South, while reconfiguring the conformations of subjectivities and political organization. It also seeks to reflect on the uses of technological deployments linked to cybernetics and the possibilities of different uses.</p> Gabriela González Ortuño Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriela González Ortuño 2022-06-27 2022-06-27 3 5 e21084 e21084 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.84 The Symbol of the Mask <p>The <em>Zapatista</em> Indigenous Movement from Chiapas, Mexico is an example of the anthropological dynamics between the visible and the invisible in Western culture and the possible revolution of perceiving reality as such since they had to cover their faces with masks in their rebel anti-system movement in order to be considered as having the same dignity as other human beings: they performed a revolutionary act that changed the symbolic order of the visible by the public exhibition of their colonial submission. The mask <em>gave</em> them a face, disrupting the order of the visible with uncanny faces. In this article, a nondual model is proposed to capture the inessential ground of the given composed of endless perspectives in continuous transformation by the generation of ontological novelty: an open cognitive horizon of symbolically empty points of view irreducible to one perspective. For Krishnamurti, the revolutionary act is to<em> see without an image</em> in order to phenomenologically attend to things as they are beyond the known and the unknown such as Stilinovi? and Malevich pursued the dissolution of symbolic representations through art for the transformation of human reality.</p> Julio Martín Alcántara Carrera Copyright (c) 2022 Julio Martín Alcántara Carrera 2022-05-18 2022-05-18 3 5 e21088 e21088 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.88 The specificity of the metaphysics of human praxis. Essays of Franz Hinkelammert <p>The research problem is that the metaphysics of human praxis is confused with the metaphysics of human action, but the first has specific features and the second is general. Both metaphysics is not separate, one is part of the other. The objective of the paper, therefore, is to determine the particularities of the metaphysics of human praxis from the subject of praxis outlined by Hinkelammert. The method used consists of three parts. First; identification of the subjects that are formed in the path that human beings follow to maintain their life in society. The natural, living, knowing, transcendental, needy, with concrete needs and social subject undertakes processes as an acting, creator of laws, producer, practitioner and praxis subject. Second; description of the imaginations or illusions when activating its transcendental side in each of these phases. It makes a general transcendence and several partial ones. Hinkelammert affirms that the general transcendence —as imagination— corresponds to the Messianic Kingdom of Paul of Tarsus: An Earth with absolute human equality, without death and without laws. Third; definition of the characteristics of the subject of praxis. The results indicate that this subject develops —in the processes of his life— with transcendental feasibility. Feasibility is based on imaginations. The subject of the action does not necessarily project imaginations. The metaphysics of human praxis has its bases, consequently, in transcendental feasibility. The metaphysics of human action may contain illusions that nullify such feasibility. The construction of the best possible societies, in conclusion, requires transcendental feasibility.</p> Hugo Amador Herrera Torres Copyright (c) 2022 Hugo Amador Herrera Torres 2022-06-29 2022-06-29 3 5 e21078 e21078 10.46652/resistances.v3i5.78