Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2021-07-20T20:45:51+00:00 Isabel González Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Resistances (ISSN 2737-6222)</strong>, is a refereed academic journal that publishes two issues per year (January-July and August-December) in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. It is edited by the Centro de Investigaciones en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de América Latina (CICSHAL-RELIGACIÓN), a center associated to CLACSO. The journal is inspired by the resistance experience of Dolores Cacuango, who promoted processes of struggle and political participation that allowed great advances in the achievement of the rights of peasants and indigenous people and oppressed sectors of the region. This constitutes a reference to our intention to make visible and revalue a philosophical praxis committed to the historical and social reality.</p> Presentation of the dossier: Ethics, science, and health policy. Philosophical and trans-disciplinary contributions for a transformation of the health system 2021-07-20T20:45:51+00:00 María Graciela de Ortúzar Adriana María Arpini <p>Presentation of the dossier:<strong> Ethics, science, and health policy. Philosophical and trans-disciplinary contributions for a transformation of the health system.</strong></p> 2021-07-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 María Graciela de Ortúzar, Adriana María Arpini Shaping the Noosphere: Geoethical values and spiritual resistance in Terres de l’Ebre, Catalonia, Spain 2021-05-21T20:44:14+00:00 Francesc Bellaubi <p class="p1">The concept of the Noosphere is of great importance when looking at the values underpinning the technocratic artifacts and technocracies (human physical technological objects and knowledge processes) by which Humans relate to the Geosphere through other human beings. In this sense, the Noosphere may inform geoethics as an environmental, social, and spiritual praxis and thinking aiming at ecological justice. The concept of the Noosphere represents the coexistence and coevolution of Humans and the Geosphere, overcoming the dichotomy between instrumental materialistic and intrinsic ecocentric values but considering the meaning of a constitutive dimension. Thus, the Noosphere becomes a concept for reconnection with the human community, the natural world, and the Divine, and develops into an ecological mysticism that, in turn, unfolds in resistance in hope as a kind of spiritual activism. The theoretical framework is illustrated with the case study of the Terres de L’Ebre in Catalonia (Spain).</p> 2021-07-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Francesc Bellaubi Climate change and health: the bet on deliberation 2021-06-07T23:10:12+00:00 Daniel Busdygan Wilmer Yesid Leguizamón Arias Natalia Elisa Ramírez Hernández <p class="p1">The complex interaction between current societies and the environment is an important line of research that would allow us to understand how the mode of production of the capitalist model constitutes one of the main causes of global warming and, in turn, like a boomerang effect, such climate change would directly affect human health. Based on the analysis of this complex relationship, this article seeks to propose an alternative, necessary but not sufficient, with a view to building more harmonious and sustainable relations between human beings and their environment, based on the construction of a model of citizenship aimed at providing spaces for effective participation for vulnerable sectors, particularly those whose health and food security may be affected by the effects of climate change. For this purpose, a methodological design with a qualitative approach was used, which introduced interdisciplinary elements that combined theoretical and methodological elements of political philosophy and sociology, using categories such as social metabolism, which allows tracing the impact of human evolution and its political and social organizations in relation to the global ecosystem from its energy sources.</p> 2021-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Daniel Busdygan Woyie t’ woyie: Recovering knowledge, wisdom, and practices of the Wichí people for an intercultural epistemic transformation of health systems 2021-06-22T00:13:12+00:00 Gloria Silvana Elías Libia Tujuayliya Gea Zamora <p class="p1">This paper starts from a fact of the Argentine reality: the public policies on health carried out by the national State since its conformation, ignore and make invisible the epistemes and the horizons of the meaning of those native peoples who preceded it. Therefore, it is urgent to think of possible ways of construction between the State and the indigenous people that lead to intercultural health systems. In order to concretely show this fact of reality that we postulate, the paper deals with the State-indigenous people’s health problem in a particular area of the province of Salta, inhabited by Wichí communities. There, a program was implemented in the territory that addressed primary health issues, but this program quickly lost state support. Based on the analysis of this experience, focused mainly on children and mothers, this paper presents some results and conclusions: high infant mortality due to malnutrition; absence of primary health care in the territory; lack of knowledge and deep disinterest of the government to recover the epistemes of these communities and develop an intercultural health system and, even more serious, the Wichí communities are victims of extreme poverty due to actions and omissions of a State that historically ignores and underestimates them.</p> 2021-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gloria Silvana Elías, Libia Tujuayliya Gea Zamora Mapping the emergence of the National Health Care Policy for Indigenous People in Brazil 2021-06-27T02:44:52+00:00 Pollyanna dos Santos Telma Maria Gonçalves Menicucci <p class="p1">This article is a case study about the construction of the National Health Care Policy for Indigenous Peoples (PNASPI), in which causal processes are reconstituted and descriptive inferences concerning the entry of indigenous health into the government agenda as a public policy of the Brazilian State are made. The theoretical-analytical models that supported this article are the Multiple Streams Framework, by John W. Kingdon, and the Punctuated Equilibrium Theory, developed by James L. True, Bryan D. Jones, and Frank R. Baumgartner. The research that gave rise to it was undertaken through documental, bibliographical, and interviews analysis. The results of this article are the description of the process by which the health of indigenous people became a public policy, the identification of institutions and actors involved, the construction of the image of the differentiated health policy for indigenous people, as well as the political conditions, the historical context, and the prevailing national “climate”. It is concluded that the constitution of the PNASPI results from the effective participation of indigenous people in health councils and conferences and in different forms of demand mobilization. In addition, institutional changes have been both in the sense of making concrete the proposal for a differentiated policy for indigenous people and, in the opposite sense, of promoting the integration of people into the rest of Brazilian society, ignoring Brazilian multiculturalism.</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Pollyanna Santos Therapeutic itineraries and medical pluralisms of Bolivian migrant women in Argentina 2021-06-23T21:35:08+00:00 Lila Aizenberg Brígida Baeza <p class="p1">This article arises from the question of how intercultural health processes can be generated within limited contexts for health care and healthcare access for migrants, particularly women who migrate. We propose the analysis of the health systems and the broader life context that surrounds the processes of health, disease and care of Bolivian migrant women living in three Argentinean inner cities. From a qualitative perspective, we carry out interviews with health professionals and key informants as well as observations in living spaces, health services and public institutions. We conclude the need to generate approaches towards the reflection on the resolution capacity of the healthcare systems as well as the inclusion of the different forms of understanding the ways of healing the body and discomfort, especially in the context of high levels of vulnerability.</p> 2021-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lila Aizenberg, Brígida Baeza Right to cultural participation as a dimension of access to health. Migrants and Human Rights 2021-06-07T22:59:18+00:00 Laura Gottero <p class="p1">The article proposes to systematize and analyze the place of the right to cultural participation in the configuration of the right to health as a human right, from the framework of norms and agreements built in the international community, focusing on the case of migrants. Based on the compilation and critical review of the documentary and normative material elaborated in the international protection systems on the subject, we reflect on how the right to cultural participation and the valuation of interculturality is a highly relevant dimension in the realization of the right to health as a human right for migrants. The methodological framework of the work is based on a combined design that articulates discourse analysis, the human rights approach as a methodological approach, and the proposal of the Epistemologies of the South. The latter perspective is useful in terms of the perfectibility of protection systems and the challenge implied in delving into the scope of the main dimensions of human rights (universality, accessibility, interdependence, progressiveness), hence their progressive nature and the impact on interdependence. This paper proposes a dialogue between the human rights approach and the epistemologies of the South that allows sustaining the level of obligation that it has for the States, despite being a hegemonic approach, with a constant reflexive counterpart that addresses its content with an alternative and critical view. A South-South approach to the discussion will make it possible to counteract the crystallizations and generalizations inherent to the power emanating from human rights instruments by virtue of their conditions of production and circulation.</p> 2021-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Laura Gottero Disability and quality of life in triage decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic: contributions from an equity framework and queer-crip perspectives 2021-06-12T20:32:31+00:00 Lautaro Leani <p class="p1">In health economics studies, it is usual to use measurement units that weight the number of years of life expected and the presence of disability (DALY) or the quality of life (QALY) during such a period. The objective of this work is to inquire into the assumptions and ethical consequences of the use of these units of measurement as criteria of priority or tiebreaker in triage decisions during the COVID-19 pandemic. First, it will address the connections between these categories and the standard view of the quality of life of people with disabilities, according to which the quality of life of these people is comparatively lower than that of the rest. Second, it will be argued that this perspective is wrong and that, when it influences triage decisions, it feeds back structural injustices that are not permissible from an ethical framework of equity. Finally, it will be discussed the representation of the deepening of the mechanisms that produce inequality and structural injustice as a period of crisis that justifies states of emergency, exception, and urgency. This will show that focusing solely on the need to apply individual priority or tiebreaker criteria in triage decisions during COVID-19 is presented under misleading rhetoric that hides the systematic processes of exclusion and exploitation that have produced a large part of the conditions that generate the dilemmas of the present, and that block comprehensive, collective and long-term measures.</p> 2021-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Lautaro Leani Identity and rights: the limits in the demand and legislation of the Law on the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy 2021-05-20T01:56:03+00:00 Luciana Wisky Constanza Pagani <p class="p1">In December 2020, in the midst of the health emergency resulting from COVID-19, Law No. 27,610, which guarantees the right to decide and access to voluntary termination of pregnancy up to the fourteenth week (inclusive) of the gestational process, was enacted in Argentina. From a position in favor of the legalization of abortion, this article aims to point out the enunciative and argumentative limits present in the demand and in the letter of the Law. To this end, we use the methodology of a theoretical article, taking as a fundamental antecedent the work of Blas Radi, placing this article in the paradigm of Reproductive Justice. This framework, together with other theoretical contributions, allows us to analyze the theoretical and practical limits of the right to abortion as expressed in the slogans and arguments put forward during the debate and in the text of the Law. Through this analysis, we suggest that the legalization of abortion per se does not produce the reorganization of the social order necessary to guarantee that all people with the capacity to bear children have access to the formally recognized right. Therefore, we conclude that, despite the recognition of the right to the Voluntary Interruption of Pregnancy, people with the capacity to bear children under unequal conditions can easily be eclipsed by the sunny formulations of “progress” that in fact only defends and guarantees the freedom and equality of some.</p> 2021-07-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Luciana Wisky The dilemma of difference. Reflections from feminist political theory on violence against natives women in Argentina 2021-06-23T21:29:11+00:00 Suyai García Gualda <p class="p1">Violence against indigenous women and girls has increased because of the isolation and confinement measures applied due to the pandemic in the making. Faced with this situation, a series of questions arise that motivates this article: what is the place of the politics of difference in times of pandemic? How are institutional-state responses managed to channel the complaints and particular demands of indigenous women? And how can the politics of difference perpetuate or overcome gender inequality and inequity within indigenous people and nations? All these questions lead to the equality-difference dyad and the debates between feminism (s) and multiculturalism. The starting point is a dilemma around recognition (of differences), redistribution (of resources), and representation (political participation) as key dimensions of social justice, more so of gender justice. The main objective is to reflect on the current situation of indigenous women - with special attention to Mapuche women - in the face of the multiple forms of violence and inequality that affect the region. To this end, we propose a theoretical approach capable of articulating characteristics of grounded theory, biographical methods such as life history, and data constructed from ethnographic work in different communities in the Argentine North Patagonia.</p> 2021-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Suyai García Gualda Between distribution and recognition. Reflections on the debate on justice in public health 2021-06-26T04:51:21+00:00 Adriana María Arpini <p class="p1">We propose a reflection on the problems of justice (and injustice) in order to contribute to the foundation of criteria for a review and transformation of the way in which the health care of subaltern groups is instrumentalized (v. gr. migrant women). We review the classical (Aristotle) and contemporary conceptions of justice (Rawls, Sen), and a critical ethic elaboration with a Latin American perspective (Dussel), with the purpose of elucidating the way in which a conception of justice is operationalized, between distribution and recognition, that enables practices according to the free decision and realization of one’s life project.</p> 2021-07-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Adriana María Arpini Reason versus Ian Hacking’s styles of scientific reasoning 2021-06-22T00:23:17+00:00 Kola Abimbola <p>There is a view in contemporary philosophy of science according to which scientific methodology itself is subject to radical change as part of scientific progress. According to this view, change in science is not confined to accepted theories. The core principles of scientific theory appraisal, including the rules and categories used to rank and confer truth-values on theories, are also said to be subject to radical change as science develops. In this paper, I examine Ian Hacking’s (1975; 1980; 1982; 1983; 1985; 1996; 1999; 2012) version of this <em>no-invariant-methodology</em> thesis. I argue that, just like Thomas Kuhn’s “paradigms,” Larry Laudan’s “research traditions,” and Imre Lakatos’ “research programmes,” Hacking’s “styles of reasoning” fail to give an adequate account of scientific progress.</p> 2021-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Kola Abimbola History of the Present Time, narratives and homosexuality: the cases of Pierre Seel and Rudolf Brazda as Holocaust survivors 2021-07-16T18:07:43+00:00 Mateus Henrique Siqueira Gonçalves <p class="p1">This article exposes the construction of the environment that made possible the manifestation of the homosexual narratives of Pierre Seel and Rudolf Brazda as Holocaust survivors; by what means they emerge and relate to the History of the Present Time and how this category can be seen as a form of expression of the traumatic experience. For this to be possible, I compared both works (“Eu, Pierre Seel, deportado homossexual” and “Triângulo Rosa: um homossexual no campo de concentração nazista”) in a careful reading of the common social markers for these subjects. The points of contact shared between the analyzed documents, an autobiography from 1994 and a biography from 2010, were privileged for the writing of this text. The main objective of this analysis was to understand how the testimonial narratives of these individuals were consolidated in spaces of socio-political struggle, claiming a legitimate place in the public sphere, reparations, and rights to memory, truth, and justice. Among the results, there is the reality of institutional homophobia as a direct obstacle to the recognition of homosexual victims of persecution, deportation, imprisonment, and extermination carried out by the Nazis. Even decades after the reconstruction of Europe and, consequently, the denazification of its territory, victims such as the pink triangles remained on the social margin, seen by the State and society as common criminals.</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mateus Henrique Siqueira Gonçalves Migratory memory, identity and anti-gypsyism through the anarchist eyes of Cláudio Domingos Iovanovitchi 2021-06-08T00:02:39+00:00 Brigitte Grossmann Cairus <p class="p1">The gypsy ethnic element has been present in Brazil since the beginning of the colonial period. Notwithstanding this trace of historical legitimacy in the Brazilian social fabric, its trajectory is marked by nuances of extreme intolerance, marginality, and otherness, of a deleterious character. Decades after Afro-Brazilians and Indigenous people gained official sanction, the government of President Luís Inácio Lula da Silva finally recognized Brazilian Roma as an important minority of multicultural Brazil by inaugurating National Gypsy Day in 2006. Nonetheless, the fight for rights of citizenship and ethnic visibility began, through the Gypsy agency, years earlier, in the late 1980s. With a more fluid approach to contemporary Italian oral history, this text presents the testimony of the Roma leader Cláudio Iovanovitchi, president of the Association of Preservation of Gypsy Culture (APRECI) from Curitiba, Paraná since 1995 and a gypsy ethnic political trailblazer in Brasília. In the testimony, Claudio narrates his family diasporic memories and his concerns on the phenomenon of cultural globalization. He understands nomadism as a consequence of the alterity generated by antiziganism, as well as an enabler of new paths and new encounters; he analyzes the ethnic disputes and policies established in Brasília and promotes, through his family memory, a reflection on the silence about <em>Porrajmos</em>, the gypsy holocaust. From the Gypsy perspective, the testimony offers a transnational understanding of antiziganism, as well as an elucidation of the historicity of national Gypsy ethnic policies, with their due disputes between Gypsies and non-Gypsies in Brasília.</p> 2021-07-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Brigitte Grossmann Cairus The animus of Francesco Petrarca: Materials for a reconstruction of the relation between the human and the world 2021-06-26T04:49:07+00:00 Alvaro Patricio Jiménez Vargas <p class="p1">The sign of the times indicates an existential crisis in Western culture. First, there is a discontinuity between the subjective experience and the world, which in turn unfolds in the world, specifically in the problems described in its ecological and productive dimension. On the other hand, we have witnessed the collapse of the narratives that sought to cohere the world in a universal story. In this state of affairs, this text proposes the need to incorporate narratives capable of acting at all levels of depth in which the problem that afflicts contemporary humanity operates. For this reason, the ontological scopes described in a sonnet by the Italian poet Francesco Petrarca will be reviewed in order to know the status of humanity in the Renaissance worldview, thanks to the understanding of its primordial organ which is the heart, the hegemonikon. Thanks to this, the West has the opportunity to incorporate this lost piece in history, which will provide new materials that come from a worldview in which the human was rooted in the cosmos, all to respond to a problem that is primarily ontological, i.e., that questions the nature and scope of humanity.</p> 2021-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alvaro Patricio Jiménez Vargas