Resistances. Journal of the Philosophy of History 2022-12-31T05:00:26+00:00 Isabel González Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Resistances (ISSN 2737-6222)</strong>, is a refereed academic journal that publishes two issues per year (January-July and August-December) in Spanish, Portuguese, and English. It is edited by the Centro de Investigaciones en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales de América Latina (CICSHAL-RELIGACIÓN), a center associated to CLACSO. The journal is inspired by the resistance experience of Dolores Cacuango, who promoted processes of struggle and political participation that allowed great advances in the achievement of the rights of peasants and indigenous people and oppressed sectors of the region. This constitutes a reference to our intention to make visible and revalue a philosophical praxis committed to the historical and social reality.</p> Introduction to the dossier. Philosophy of psychopathology: perspectives on mind, rationality and agency 2022-12-31T05:00:26+00:00 Biani Paola Sánchez López Ángeles Eraña <p>Introduction to the dossier. Philosophy of psychopathology: perspectives on mind, rationality and agency</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 On Doxasticisms and Anti-Doxasticisms: Mapping the Typology Problem of Delusions 2022-09-20T22:08:52+00:00 Pablo López Silva Miguel Nuñez de Prado Gordillo Víctor Fernández Castro <p style="font-weight: 400;">One of the most fundamental problems within current philosophy of psychopathology has to do with how to define which mental states should be regarded as delusional. This has been called the typology problem of delusions. This paper clarifies the main philosophical arguments for the dominant alternatives to this problem in current literature: doxasticism, that characterizes delusional states as abnormal beliefs, and anti-doxasticism, that claims that delusions should not be characterized as beliefs and offers a number of alternatives. After, we examine their respective counterarguments and replies and conclude with some of the most important open challenges in the debate in order to motivate further conceptual and empirical research.</p> 2022-10-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pablo López Silva, Miguel Nuñez de Prado Gordillo, Víctor Fernández Castro Outline for a social philosophy of psychopathology 2022-09-20T21:35:03+00:00 Zenia Yébenes <p class="p1">This article proposes an approach to psychopathology from social philosophy focusing on three moments. First, we propose to distinguish the social and historical conditions of possibility that produces the emergence of a psychopathological discourse from its conditions of validity. The conditions of validity situate us within the psychopathological discourse, in the field of the proposition, whose truth or falsity is not decided arbitrarily but based on the constitutive rules of the discourse. The conditions of possibility are located at another level: that of noticing that the opposition between the true and the false is organized around the discourse of psychopathology as a particular type of discourse that is constituted at a specific moment and whose emergence also supposes the intervention multiple factors and agents, not all of them scientific. In a second moment, we propose to defend the importance of the socially shared form of life to understand psychopathology and, finally, delve into the relationship between the socially shared way of life and the ways of experiencing psychosis.</p> 2022-12-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Zenia Yébenes Sharing responsibility for conspiracy beliefs: The agency-in-context model 2022-12-21T02:17:20+00:00 Lisa Bortolotti <p>In this paper, I borrow Neil Levy’s account of <em>bad beliefs</em> as a starting point to discuss how the social turn in epistemology affects our understanding of the formation, persistence, and spreading of conspiracy beliefs. Despite the recent convergence of philosophers and psychologists on the importance of studying the social dimensions of cognition, current models of conspiracy beliefs differ substantially as to the role that agents have in adopting and maintaining conspiracy beliefs. As a result, the proposals also differ in the remedial strategies they recommend. Here I endorse an integrative approach, which I call “agency in context”, combining explanations of bad believing in terms of the agent’s cognitive habits and information processing with societal failures in providing the support agents need to recognize marks of epistemic authority in sources of information and acquire the critical skills for the evaluation of competing explanations.</p> 2022-12-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Lisa Bortolotti Epistemology of bereavement: reflections on continuing bonds 2022-11-18T20:29:49+00:00 Alejandro Vázquez del Mercado <p class="p1">The period of bereavement following the loss of a loved one presents unusual experiences and attitudes that play an important role in the cognitive life of bereaved people; for example, the momentary feeling that the deceased person is present, as well as religious or spiritual beliefs. Often this involves actively maintaining a bond with the deceased person through various practices in everyday life. Both the mental states related to mourning and the practices corresponding to continuing bonds have an epistemic value, to the extent that they provide a contribution to the functionality of the agent in his search to acquire knowledge, understanding, and other epistemic goods. This has ethical and social consequences since these epistemic goods can be dismantled or affected by bereavement interventions, both clinical and non-clinical. Notwithstanding, this dimension has not been sufficiently recognized by the philosophical literature. This work seeks to motivate the epistemological study of bereavement in two ways. First, by offering a characterization of the mental states associated with grief in terms of subdoxastic states (such as <em>aliefs</em>). Second, the role that these mental states play in the space of affordances structured in an affective niche that allows the successful performance of the suffering person as an epistemic agent is shown. This seeks to provide an analytical framework that can be developed and extended in future works to study the epistemological aspects of bereavement.</p> 2022-12-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Alejandro Vázquez del Mercado Parallel Debates: A Methodological Proposal 2022-10-19T20:14:06+00:00 Itsue Nakaya-Perez <p class="p1">Social ontology focuses on questions about the reality of human categories. The typical examples are gender and race. Common questions about them are: Do they exist? What is their nature? Do they exist in the best possible way? Meanwhile, the philosophy of psychiatry has been discussing the reality of psychopathology, what is the best way to classify mental disorders, and whether it is possible to define them without normative vocabulary. I think there is something not only strange but inadequate about these discussions being held apart. Particularly, I hold that by being held separately these discussions are philosophically incomplete. In this paper, I argue that these debates are parallel in crucial aspects, but more importantly that they can benefit from each other if they start a dialogue. I suggest some paths we can take to start fruitful discussions and offer examples of the kind of outcomes we can expect. However, my main contribution is to sketch a common framework to map current discussions, make comparisons between them, and, more importantly, guide new research.</p> 2022-12-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Itsue Nakaya-Perez A radical embodied perspective of autism: towards ethical, and inclusive views for cognitive diversities 2022-11-18T22:44:42+00:00 Itzel Cadena Alvear Melina Gastelum Vargas <p class="p1">Autism Spectrum Disorders have been defined as a group of developmental conditions that affect the capacity to interact with the physical and social environment, among others. A core feature of autism is the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors that vary in complexity, form, and frequency throughout life history. These core features have traditionally been defined as impairments that interfere with communication competence. From an embodied approach, however, these actions could be seen as characteristic ways of interacting with the world. In this sense, we take an enactive and embodied approach to cognition in which we conceive cognitive agents as sensorimotor systems whose perception-action occurs in terms of affordances. This framework provides an integrative view of autism considering affectivity, perception, action, exploration, and interaction within a complex and dynamic dimension. Following this, we propose different applications based on embodied, intercultural, and feminist epistemologies, to understand and participate with autistic and cognitively diverse populations. The change in theoretical and methodological paradigms within embodied cognitive science towards autism and other cognitive diversities and how they engage with the world can lead to more comprehensive, integrative, and bioethical approaches.</p> 2022-12-08T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Itzel Cadena Alvear, Melina Gastelum Vargas A normative view of madness from Kantian philosophy to understand anti-vaccine and anti-mask protests of 2020 and 2021 2022-11-18T21:17:06+00:00 Johan Sebastián Mayorga Alberto <p>This text aims to offer a epistemic-normative reading of madness in Kant's work and its different developments throughout his work. This to maintain that madness arises from rationality itself when understood it as a force that exceeds the limits that reason imposes on itself. By outlining normality or mental sanity as the restriction of reason to sensibility, Kant intends -I maintain- to outline the minimum subjective and epistemic conditions for a republican political conformation, which is based on the agreement between subjects about the rules that will regulate their actions and interactions. This reading will allow us to outline an understanding of the anti-vaccine protest that took place during the pandemic. Showing that those who promote and follow them break with this minimum agreement on the restrictions of reason, thus reaching selfish excesses that harm democratic dynamics. I concluded that these people can be understood as madness people who represent a danger to the republican and democratic political organization.</p> 2022-12-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Johan Sebastián Mayorga Alberto A taxonomy of masochism 2022-11-18T20:19:20+00:00 Abraham Sapién <p>In this text, we identify multiple ways in which we feel attracted to unpleasant experiences. Based on the bibliography in philosophy and psychiatry, two classifications of masochism are established: <em>benign</em> and <em>pathological</em>. Both are explained based on <em>masochistic desires</em>, an attitude in favor of experiencing something unpleasant, such as pain, in virtue of a relationship assigned to the unpleasant experience with something else. The attributed relationship can be <em>instrumental</em> or <em>mereological</em>. Benign masochism consists of habits motivated by masochistic desires without these implying harm to people’s health. In this sense, everyone, or almost everyone, is a masochist. This type may constitute cultural practices, such as eating spicy food, playing contact sports, or participating in BDSM groups. On the contrary, pathological masochism is one that, also motivated by masochistic desires, damages people’s health, whether at a biological, psychological, or sociological level. A taxonomy of masochism allows us to comprehend the intricate relation we have with pain and other unpleasant experiences.</p> 2022-12-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Abraham Sapién Dinámicas de la exclusión testimonial. Sobre injusticia epistémica, atención a la salud mental y cuidado emocional 2022-11-29T04:41:36+00:00 Iván Eliab Gómez Aguilar <p>The paper uses the conceptual tools of the discussion on epistemic injustice to analyse three contexts of emotional care and mental health care, such as: informal social support networks, therapeutic care and psychiatric care. The purpose is to show the type of social dynamics that, in such contexts, derive in an exclusion of the testimony of the people who resort to them. The central thesis argues that understanding the different social dynamics that lead to the different types of exclusions implies breaking down social circumstances of different depths, some of which are interrelated, as represented by the production of biases derived from different types of prejudices (identity or participation), while others respond to the constitution of an excess of credibility granted to certain expert fields. Thus, the invitation is to think that the restitution of epistemic justice in this type of care does not depend either on the correction of a single social instance or on the improvement of a single expert system.</p> 2022-12-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Iván Eliab Gómez Aguilar Psychopharmacological management of femininity. Antipsychotics for insubordinate women 2022-09-20T21:50:35+00:00 Sandra Caponi <p style="font-weight: 400;">The article adopts a historical and critical perspective concerning the hegemonic model of mental health focused on the need to pharmacologically restore a neurochemical imbalance. In the field of psychiatry, there seems to be a broad agreement to defend the thesis according to which, between 1952 and 1954, with the discovery of the first neuroleptic, chlorpromazine, a process of radical transformation of psychiatric knowledge would begin. In 1954, the North American Laboratory Smith, Kline and French (today Glaxo Smith) bought the patent to market that drug in the United States. We analyze the advertising campaign addressed to women. The advertising of this powerful psychiatric drug, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, allows us to understand the gender perspective existing in the pharmaceutical industry and the role of neuroleptics in the management of femininity.</p> 2022-10-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sandra Caponi